report. Prior to the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, some of the books had been known only in translation (such as the book of Tobit and the Testament of Judah), while others were altogether unknown. After a scroll has been exhibited for 3–6 months, it is removed from its showcase and placed temporarily in a special storeroom, where it "rests" from exposure. Parchment •  This week, the Israel Museum, in collaboration with Google, launched a new Web site that allows visitors to view and search high-resolution images of the Dead Sea Scrolls. 1995-. - See 4,920 traveler reviews, 2,415 candid photos, and great deals for Jerusalem, Israel, at Tripadvisor. Temple Scroll; War Scroll; Community Rule Scroll; Commentary on the Habakkuk Scroll; The Community Rule. Among all the DSS, there is one particular document, the Temple Scroll (TS) (11QT a) from the Israel Museum’s collection, which is especially notable because of its physical appearance (Fig. The Israel Museum is among the largest encyclopedic museums in the world, and one of the most breathtaking places in Israel to visit. Evidence of the biblical text from the 4th to 8th century CE has been preserved only by Christians – in Greek, Latin, and other translations. This scroll is also one of the oldest to have been preserved; scholars estimate that it was written around 100 BCE. The scrolls were kept in the strong-room for several months because of the coronavirus pandemic and they will be displayed on public view as the museum opens again for visitors this Thursday. Jerusalem, Israel The Isaiah manuscript A is one of the seven scrolls discovered in Qumran in 1947. “Being versed from their early years in the holy books [and] various forms of purification . Eventually, other books (such as Psalms and Job) were “promoted” to a level of sanctity, while others (including The Wisdom of Ben Sira) remained outside the canon, either surviving as apocryphal literature or disappearing altogether. Human Sanctuary It is without a doubt one of the most significant archaeological discoveries of … The Israel Museum welcomes you to the Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Project, allowing users to examine and explore these most ancient manuscripts from Second Temple times at a level of detail never before possible. According to The Israel Museum, it's thought to be a copy of a … The manuscript is written in Hebrew in the square Herodian script of the late Second Temple Period (the first half of the first century CE), on extremely thin animal skin (one-tenth of a millimeter), making it the thinnest parchment scroll ever found in the caves of Qumran. The Human Sanctuary is a web based, interactive, encyclopedia offering a unique glimpse into community life during the historical period at the beginning of the Common Era (CE), Time Travel: The Story of the Dead Sea Scrolls Qumran Cave 11 •  The exegetical works written by the sectarians deal with the interpretation of the laws of the Pentateuch (such as the Temple Scroll), of various biblical stories (such as the Testament of Levi), and, in particular, of the words of the Prophets. One of them, known as the “Small Codex,” was probably written in Italy in 1341 by an Ashkenazi scribe. The Temple Israel Museum houses and proudly displays a remarkable treasure of Jewish ritual art featuring The Herta and Justin H. Adler Judaica Collection. Scholars believe that some of the scrolls were written by the community scribes, but others were written outside of Qumran. Developed in partnership with Google, the new website gives users access to searchable, fast-loading, high-resolution images of the scrolls, as well as short explanatory videos and background information on the texts and their history. One year after, the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) and Google Israel announced the publishing of the Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library with tens of thousands of the scrolls' fragments in high resolution on display online. The making of many books is without limit” (Ecclesiastes 12:12). “Against them, my son, be warned! codex), such as the 4th-century CE Codex Sinaiticus, which were written on leaves of parchment folded and sewn together in a binding. In 1599 Rabbi Joseph Caro of Safed, author of the legal code Shulhan Arukh, sent a copy of the Codex to Rabbi Moses Isserles (the “Rema”) in Cracow, who used it to write his own Torah scroll. This event is commonly regarded as the earliest evidence for the revolutionary process through which the ancient traditions of the Jewish people became sacred books, the most authoritative source for religious belief and practice. Through its symbolic content or function, Jewish art illustrates the creative expression of the Jewish people based on their historical and religious experiences from antiquity to the present. We do not know who commissioned the Aleppo Codex. The Temple Scroll is From Unknown Origins . Scrolls bearing the Septuagint Greek translation (Exodus, Leviticus) and an Aramaic translation (Leviticus, Job) have survived as well. Detail of a fragment of the Temple Scroll, which has never traveled outside of Israel before its current exhibition at the Maltz Museum in Cleveland. A central question relates to the social provenance of this work: While the scroll shares many features in common with the other sectarian works discovered in the caves near Qumran, several representative expressions, such as the phrase "Sons of Light," and concepts, such as the belief in predestination, are lacking. From the time of these scrolls until the 8th century CE, the period to which the earliest biblical manuscripts from the Cairo Genizah have been ascribed, no Hebrew manuscripts of the Bible have been preserved (some of the biblical fragments from the Cairo Genizah were written according to the authoritative version mentioned above). no comments yet. The scroll, written in Hebrew, was found in twelve copies; the copy displayed in the Shrine of the Book, which is almost complete, was discovered in 1947. The Temple Scroll of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The texts were copied onto parchment or papyrus, and later also onto paper, using a stylus or quill dipped into ink. In Jerusalem, however, in the Shrine of the Book, it is on public view. . The picture that emerges from the scroll is one of a community that functioned as a collective unit and pursued a severe ascetic lifestyle based on stringent rules. Digital Dead Sea Scrolls at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem - The Temple Scroll. Also on the museum’s campus is an extensive outdoor Second Temple Model of Jerusalem in AD 66, before its destruction by the Romans. This symbolic building, a kind of sanctuary intended to express profound spiritual meaning, is considered an international landmark of modern architecture. It remained at the Ben-Zvi Institute for a while, and later was on display at the National Library before finally arriving at the Israel Museum. Interestingly, three of the scrolls were purchased by Professor Sukenik only a few days before the synagogue in Aleppo was burned This unique symbolism enhances the significance of the Shrine of the Book, whose very form represents the idea of the rebirth of the Jewish people after two thousand years of wandering, exile, and near-annihilation; to quote the prophet Ezekiel in his “Vision of the Dry Bones” (37:14): “I will put my breath into you and you shall live again. Sun, Mon, Wed, Thur 10 am - 5 pm It was brought to Israel, and is now owned by the Israel Museum. will be closed to visitors until further notice, Tues, 4.12 (2nd day Hanukkah) 10 am - 9 pm hide. Just as the Tabernacle stood at the center of the Israelite camp, so too the utopian Temple was to stand at the center of the inner court, with the altar for burnt offerings and other objects near it, radiating its holiness to the whole of the Jewish People and the Land of Israel, as the Tabernacle did in the time of the Israelites' wandering in the desert. report. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem is one of the world's leading museums. The End of Days: The “War of the Sons of Light and the Sons of Darkness”, “This is the day appointed by Him for the defeat and overthrow of the Prince of the kingdom of wickedness” (War of the Sons and Light and the Sons of Darkness XVII:5–6), The members of the Community of the yahad retired to the desert out of a profound conviction that they were living in the End of Days and that the final Day of Judgment was close at hand. Scribes and priests among the Jewish exiles in Babylonia furthered this process by collecting the ancient traditions of the Bible, committing them to writing, and editing them; during the Persian period (ca. Since their discovery, the Qumran scrolls have been housed at the Israel Museum, and scholars have pored over the ancient documents and opened a … The Great Isaiah Scroll (Image credit: The Israel Museum, Jerusalum) The Great Isaiah Scroll is one of the original seven Dead Sea Scrolls discovered … Their laws enjoined them to ensure that shifts of community members be engaged in study around the clock, in order to reveal the “divine mysteries” of the law, history, and the cosmos. H: 24-26; L: 814 cm •  December 31st 2014. They are approximately two thousand years old, dating from the third century BCE to the first century CE. The Stieglitz Collection: Masterpieces of Jewish Art Jewish Marriage Contracts (Ketubbot) Collection . It too is now owned by the Israel Museum. Scroll fragment, by santuary-displayed Scroll of Isaiah, at museum housing Dead Sea Scrolls & other ancient... israel museum - musee d'israel photos et images de collection Section of railway bridge with a boxcar used to transport Jews to concentration camps, Yad Vashem, Holocaust Museum, Jerusalem, Israel. Its colophon (an inscription placed at the end of a manuscript), copied by Professor Umberto Cassuto when he visited Aleppo in 1943, states that the manuscript, which comprised all twenty-four books of the Bible, was copied in the land of Israel by a scribe named Solomon ben Buya‘a, scion of a well-known family of scribes who specialized in copying biblical manuscripts; the vocalization, cantillation marks, and masoretic comments were added by Aaron ben Asher, the last of the Masoretes and the final link in this great chain of tradition. In some cases, several copies of the same book were found (for instance, there were thirty copies of Deuteronomy), while in others, only one copy came to light (e.g., Ezra). Some popular titles include The Holy Land in Maps, which begins with a 6th century mosaic in Jordan and ends with satellite imaging, covering ages of political and social change. It was evidently supposed to be a kind of "new Book of Moses," which systematically combines the laws of the Temple and the sacrifices (mainly from the books of Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers) with a new version of these laws as articulated in Deuteronomy chapters 12–23. All reviews the dead sea scrolls sculpture garden scale model modern art aleppo codex second temple period on display jewish life old city audio guide holy land shrine exhibits archaeology wing manuscripts miniature israel isaiah arts qumran galleries. Two other copies of the same composition have also come to light: one in Cave 11 (Temple Scrollb [11Q20]), and another (possibly a fragmentary copy of the last part of the work) in Cave 4 (4QTemple Scrollb [4Q524]). It's called the Temple Scroll: It contains 18 parchment sheets, and it's a shocking 26.7 feet long. In pesharim of the second type, the biblical text is copied passage by passage in the original order, and each passage is explained by turn. The 1,800-year-old scrolls were discovered in the Qumran caves in 1947. They have been added to the Israel Museum's early Christianity exhibit, which has only been on view previously in Jerusalem … Screening every half hour during Museum opening hours, Dr. Adolfo Roitman, Lizbeth and George Krupp Curator of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Head of the Shrine of the Book. Israel Museum: Scrolls, temple model and good collection of painting. Among the many “pilgrims” to Aleppo to examine the Codex, we know of Yishai Hakohen b. Amram Hakohen Amadi of Kurdistan, who visited Aleppo at the end of the 16th century; Moses Joshua Kimhi, who traveled to Aleppo on the instructions of his father-in-law, Rabbi Shalom Shakhna Yellin (1790–1874), a renowned scribe; and Professor Umberto Cassuto, whom the Aleppo community permitted to consult the Codex in 1943, prior to the publication of a critical edition of the Bible by The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Google et « The Israel Museum » de Jérusalem ont numérisé et mis en ligne 5 des 900 manuscrits de la Mer Morte. Most of them were written on parchment, with the exception of a few written on papyrus. With ten separate exhibition areas and off-site installations, there is no larger, more comprehensive art and history museum in Israel than the Israel Museum. Fragment of scroll found in a Qumran cave. This literature, later to evolve in a Christian monastic context, is unknown in the Bible, and its discovery at Qumran represents the earliest testimony to its existence. [4] Among the apocryphal manuscripts (works that were not included in the Jewish biblical canon) are works that had previously been known only in translation, or that had not been known at all. The Temple Scroll of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Dead Sea Scrolls are ancient manuscripts that were discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves near Khirbet Qumran, on the northwestern shores of the Dead Sea. Blessed be he who guards it, accursed be he who steals it . It's called the Temple Scroll: It contains 18 parchment sheets, and it's a shocking 26.7 feet long. According to tradition – and modern scholarship – the great philosopher and legal (halakhic) authority Maimonides (1138–1204) relied on the Aleppo Codex when he formulated the laws relating to Torah scrolls in his legal code, the Mishneh Torah, as he explains in the conclusion to that section: “In these matters we relied upon the codex, now in Egypt, which contains the twenty-four books of Scripture and which had been in Jerusalem for several years. Its location next to official institutions of the State of Israel—the Knesset (Israeli Parliament), key government offices, and the Jewish National and University Library—is appropriate considering the degree of national importance that has been accorded the ancient texts and the building that preserves them. Five complete scrolls from the Israel Museum have been digitized for the project at this stage and are now accessible online: The Great Isaiah Scroll, The War Scroll, The Commentary on Habakkuk Scroll, The Temple Scroll, and The Community Rule Scroll. According to The Israel Museum, it's thought to be a copy of a manuscript originally written after or around 120 BCE. Prior to the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the only evidence of the Essenes’ way of life was provided by classical sources (Josephus Flavius, Philo, and Pliny the Elder) and by a few allusions in rabbinic literature. Not only Jews were fascinated by the celebrated manuscript: Sometime before 1753, a British traveler named Alexander Russell received permission to view the Aleppo Codex; a facsimile of one of the pages of the Codex appears on the title page of a book published in 1877 by a scholar named William Wickes; and in 1910 a missionary named J. Segall published a photographic reproduction of two pages of the manuscript – those containing the Ten Commandments – in his book, Travels through Northern Syria. Purchased for the Shrine of the Book with the aid of a grant from the Wolfson Foundation •  It was only in the 8th century CE, however, that Jews began to adopt this method, and even then, only for the purposes of study and interpretation. The ancient texts of the Dead Sea Scrolls are online for the first time ever (with translation) thanks to a partnership between the Israel Museum in Jerusalem and Google. The shrine houses the Isaiah scroll , dating from the second century BCE, the most intact of the Dead Sea Scrolls, and the Aleppo Codex , dating from the 10th century CE, the oldest existing Hebrew Bible. However it appears that the members of this sect wrote only part of the scrolls themselves, the remainder having been composed or copied elsewhere. A few scrolls, however, were written in ancient Hebrew script, a very small number in Greek, and fewer still in a kind of secret writing (cryptographic script) used for texts dealing with mysteries that the sectarians wished to conceal. Toward the end of the Second Temple period, this version came to be seen as authoritative by mainstream Judaism, as indicated by the fragments of later biblical scrolls discovered at Masada, Wadi Murabba‘at, Nahal Hever, and Nahal Ze’elim, all of which follow that text. Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls … Similar plaques were also attached to the curtains (parokhot) in front of the Torah shrines. Temple Scroll; War Scroll; Community Rule Scroll; Commentary on the Habakkuk Scroll ; The Commentary on Habakkuk. The Shrine of the Book (Hebrew: היכל הספר ‎, Heikhal HaSefer) is a wing of the Israel Museum in the Givat Ram neighborhood of Jerusalem that houses the Dead Sea Scrolls. Late 1st century BCE - early 1st century CE •  Everyone relied on it, because it had been corrected by Ben Asher himself, who worked on its details closely for many years and corrected it many times whenever it was being copied. The ancient Aleppo synagogue was also targeted. Among this abundance of literary texts is a unique genre of hymns called hodayot or “Thanksgiving Hymns,” on the basis of their fixed opening formula, “I thank Thee, O Lord.” Scholars have divided the eight manuscripts of the Thanksgiving Hymns into two main types: “Hodayot of the Teacher,” in which an individual (the sect’s “Teacher of Righteousness”?) The Israel Museum is the largest cultural institution in the State of Israel and is ranked among the world's leading art and archaeology museums. Digital Dead Sea Scrolls at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem - The Temple Scroll. The Aleppo Codex is considered to be the most accurate existing manuscript of the Masoretic text (another well-known manuscript is the Leningrad Codex of 1009). Israel Museum & Dead Sea Scrolls. These apocryphal and pseudoepigraphical books were cherished by the members of the Judean Desert sect. It was strictly forbidden to sell the Codex or even remove it from the synagogue, as written on the title page, “Sacred to the Lord. The Temple Scroll, which deals with the structural details of the Temple and its rituals, proposes a plan for a future imaginary Temple, remarkably sophisticated, and, above all, pure, which was to replace the existing Temple in Jerusalem. The fame of the Aleppo Codex spread far and wide, and generations of scribes consulted it in order to obtain authoritative answers to their textual queries. Inscribed bits of leather and pottery shards found at the site attest to the fact that they practiced before beginning the actual copying work. Welcome to the Shrine of the Book Complex, The Model of Jerusalem in the Second Temple Period, Falk Information Center for Jewish Art & Life, The Dorot Foundation Dead Sea Scrolls Information and Study Center, About this site | Copyright © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, 1995-. We also carry catalogues for past Israel Museum exhibitions, as well as many fascinating and beautiful books printed under the Israel Museum's stamp. The Temple Scrolla (11Q19) was almost certainly discovered in 1956 in Cave 11, located about two kilometers north of Khirbet Qumran. The Temple Scroll is From Unknown Origins The new paper greatly focuses on one large section of the scroll measuring about 1 inch (2.5 centimeters) across. 100% Upvoted. While there are plenty of texts that are in fragments, there's one Dead Sea Scroll that's not just complete but huge. They believed that in the End of Days these two camps would battle each other, as described in detail in the scroll now known as “The War of the Sons of Light and the Sons of Darkness.” This work, which provides a detailed account of the mobilization of troops, their numbers and division into units, weaponry, and so forth, states that at the end of the seventh round of battles, the forces of the “Sons of Light,” aided by God Himself and His angels, would vanquish the “Forces of Belial” (as Satan is called in the sect’s writings). In an interview with Breaking Israel News last year, Barfield stated his motives. Pieces of tape stuck to the Codex were removed, stains were cleaned, and the ink was reinforced where it had disintegrated and peeled off. Mar 2, 2020 - Explore Ira Ginzburg's board "Israel Museum" on Pinterest. It is now on display together with the Dead Sea Scrolls – they too were “brought to life” after two millennia. 5th century BCE), the first corpus of sacred books came into being, known as the “Torah [or Law] of Moses” (the Pentateuch?). Ceremonial Objects of the Jewish Community of Aleppo While that analysis has yet to be confirmed, Adler was spurred on by the discovery, and in December visited the Dead Sea Scroll labs at the Israel Museum. The newly restored scroll segments are on display for the first time. Explore the Isaiah Scroll It’s time.” Close • Posted by 17 minutes ago. Ironically, many of these works were preserved by Christians. In 1948 Samuel smuggled the four scrolls in his possession to the United States; it was only in 1954 that Sukenik’s son, Yigael Yadin, also an archaeologist, was able to bring them back to this country. Its second half – the inner portion of the scroll – is better preserved than the first. . and were therefore not preserved by the Jews. Unfortunately, the Codex that reached Jerusalem was no longer complete – the beginning, the end, and a few pages from the middle were missing. The text was either dictated or copied from another book. Most of the Hebrew and Aramaic scrolls found at Qumran were written in “Jewish” or square script, common during the Second Temple period. The Shrine of the Book was built as a repository for the first seven scrolls discovered at Qumran in 1947. Longest scroll is 8 metres long Fragment of scroll found in a Qumran cave Considerable efforts were made to locate the lost parts, for it was rumored that they still existed somewhere. The work claims to provide the details of God's instructions (to Moses?) While there are plenty of texts that are in fragments, there's one Dead Sea Scroll that's not just complete but huge. Most scholars believe that all three manuscripts are copies of an original work composed in the Land of Israel in the second half of the second century BCE (after 120 BCE, perhaps during the rule of John Hyrcanus I). “They shall not profane the city where I abide, for I, the Lord, abide amongst the children of Israel for ever and ever” (Temple Scroll XLV:13–14). Jerusalem’s Israel Museum is so vast, it could take several days to explore its campuses and see its entire collections. The renovation project included the restoration of the Shrine of the Book ($3 million), the 50:1 scale model of Jerusalem in the Second Temple period ($6 million), and a new Dorot Foundation Dead Sea Scrolls Study Center that allows you to view the scrolls in a digitalized format online. Comparison of the biblical scrolls discovered at Qumran has shown that several versions of the biblical text were in use among the Jews, but that one of them, known to scholars as the “pre-Rabbinic” or “pre-Masoretic” text, was held in particular regard (accounting for some 40% of the scrolls). Digital Dead Sea Scrolls at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem - The Temple Scroll. Some authorities consider it an alternative to the Mosaic Law; others, a complementary legal interpretation (midrash halakha). Most of the scrolls were written on parchment, with a small number on papyrus. dss.collections.imj.org.il/temple. Its main part comprises the Pentateuch, with vocalization and cantillation marks and an Aramaic translation. The interpretations themselves are prophetic in nature and allude to events related to the period in which the works were composed (hence their importance for historical research). . .” (Josephus, Jewish War II, viii, 12). The upper galleries take the visitor from the oldest extant biblical manuscripts, which were discovered in the Judean Desert, through the story of the sectarians living at Qumran, who attempted to translate the biblical ideals embodied in these texts into a way of life. Click here to view the Temple Scroll in the Digital Dead Sea Scrolls. The scroll is now housed with many of the other Dead Sea scrolls in the Shrine of the Book, part of the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. The scroll is written in the style of the book of Deuteronomy, with God speaking as if in first person. . In this passage, the phrase “the law and the prophets and the other writings” occurs three times, indicating that a second corpus of sacred scriptures – namely, the Prophets – was already known at that time. This work combines the various laws relating to the Temple with a new version of the laws set out in Deuteronomy 12–23. 0 comments. The work known as the “Community Rule” is considered a key to understanding the Community’s way of life, for it deals with such topics as the admittance of new members, rules of behavior at communal meals, and even theological principles. . President Reuven Rivlin visited the Israel Museum yesterday (Tuesday, 11 August 2020), to accompany the return of the Dead Sea Scrolls from the strong-room to their display cases in the Shrine of the Book. The sectarians believed that the angels were their companions and that their spiritual level elevated them to the border between the human and the divine. To avoid making mistakes, the scribes would pronounce the words aloud before writing them. Choisissez parmi des contenus premium Jerusalem Museum de la plus haute qualité. The Shrine of the Book is a wing of the Israel Museum in western Jerusalem. thanks God for rescuing him from Belial (Satan in the sect’s writings) and the forces of evil, and for granting him the intelligence to recount God’s greatness and justice; and “Hodayot of the Community,” hymns concerned with topics relevant to the Community as a whole. This technological innovation made it possible to utilize both sides of the page for writing and to leaf through the manuscript easily. The bright, pale scroll … https://museums.gov.il/en/items/Pages/ItemCard.aspx?IdItem=ICMS_IMJ_198… Source: The Israel Museum. See more ideas about poster design, graphic design posters, typography design. In fact, the Copper Scroll, an ancient artifact inscribed in Hebrew, is currently in a museum in Amman, Jordan. To date, only one complete page, with a passage from the Book of Chronicles, was discovered in NY in 1981. The atmosphere of sanctity that enveloped them is evident from the one hundred biblical psalms and more than two hundred extra-biblical prayers and hymns preserved in the scrolls. The first seven Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered by chance in 1947 by Bedouin, in a cave near Khirbet Qumran on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea. Highlights from the Museum Collection . Installation view of Temple, Scrolls, and Divine Messengers: Archaeology of the Land of Israel in Roman Times. Tues 4 pm - 9 pm - Free entrance for children under 18 Longest scroll is 8 metres long . The Book of Jubilees, for example, survived in Ge’ez (classical Ethiopic), and the Fourth Book of Ezra survived in Latin. Most of the latter were previously unknown; they include prayers for different days (even the End of Days), magical spells, and so forth. Come visit for a special kind of experience. The TS is written on a bright ivory-colored parchment that measures 8.148 m in length, and its thickness hardly exceeds 0.1 mm. The Temple Scrolla consists of 18 sheets of parchment, each of which has three or four columns of text. The rich artistic tradition of the Jewish community of Aleppo is notable in its ceremonial objects, which were donated by the members of the community to the synagogue to mark special occasions in their lives. “I want to return the Temple artifacts to the Jewish People. Accession number: H95.57.25, H95.57.23, H95.82.120. Through a partnership with Google, Israel Museum announced the launch of Digital Dead Sea Scrolls site in 2011, offering searchable, high-resolution images of the scrolls. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. * The exhibitions: Gil Marco Shani: Buses and To Go: New Designs for Jewish Ritual Objects . The exhibition of the Aleppo Codex in the Shrine of the Book may be seen as a fulfillment of the words of the prophet Isaiah (2:3): “For instruction [Torah] shall come forth from Zion, the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.”. Animated Film Pseudepigraphical books (attributed to fictitious authors) were preserved as independent works in a variety of languages. The Aleppo Codex as a Symbol Its author probably belonged to priestly circles and composed it at a time before the Community left Jerusalem for the desert, in the second half of the second century BCE. .” The members of the community believed that if this injunction were violated, they would be severely punished. Click to examine the scroll. Source: The Israel Museum. Among these are rewritten versions of biblical works (such as the Genesis Apocryphon), prayers, and wisdom literature. 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